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The compass only tilts forward and back so it must be rotated during this process; as a result, it is able to determine true inclination of the core sample.

Because the bubble is centred, the compass is level in both x and y.

It’s a chance to see the ancient rocks in their natural environment and the opportunity to be at the very start of project at the data collection stage; the results of which will hopefully provide brand new information to the scientific community and indeed the world. This is part of a DEEP Ph D project, in which we are trying to determine the strength of Earth’s ancient magnetic field at a time between 5 million years ago.

The first stage involves collecting rock samples from igneous events which occurred during this time period, many of which can be found in Canada.

2) The rock sample must be precisely orientated in x y and z, so that we can reproduce the orientation of the rock in the laboratory.

This orientated reference frame is crucial if we want to determine the direction of the ancient geomagnetic field.

In addition to the Grenville dyke samples, a second study area consisting of Ediacaran volcanic rocks of Newfoundland’s west coast will be used in my study as well. Samples from 10 sites of the so-called Skinner Cove volcanics are currently being mailed from Memorial University of Newfoundland to our lab in Liverpool for intensity measurements.

The directions of these rocks have been studied by Dr. As Toronto, Canada’s largest city, is always worth a visit, we concluded this first part of our Canada-adventure by strolling around the waterfront and taking a peek into downtown.

After one or two detours due to slight inaccuracies of our group’s two navigators (who will remain anonymous at this point), we finally reached University of Toronto’s palaeomagnetism lab in the outskirts of the University’s campus.

This was not easy because much had changed in the When collecting samples, there are a number of considerations; 1) Because the remanence is only locked in to the rock as the rock cools below a certain temperature, the rock sample must also be kept cool whilst drilling it from the rock.

The image below shows Phil Mc Causland drilling a sample from an outcrop whilst Daniele Thallner pumps water through the drill and out of the end to keep the sample cool.

We take a sun sighting by turning the sun compass so that the sun casts a shadow though a small hole on to the fine line on the mirror, we then take a reading and record the time; this information is then put through some software to determine the X axis reading for the core sample.

To obtain the Y axis reading, we simply add 90 degrees.

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